title

BacterioFiles

Jesse Noar

9
Followers
28
Plays
BacterioFiles
BacterioFiles

BacterioFiles

Jesse Noar

9
Followers
28
Plays
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About Us

The podcast for microbe lovers: reporting on exciting news about bacteria, archaea, and sometimes even eukaryotic microbes and viruses.

Latest Episodes

Marathon Microbes Maximize Mileage

This episode: Bacteria found in the guts of serious athletes help mice exercise longer by transforming their metabolic waste! Download Episode(7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans News item Takeaways Our gut microbes affect many aspects of health, and many aspects of how we live affect our microbes. One such aspect is physical exertion, which has been associated with enrichment of various microbes in the guts of athletes. This observation led to the question: are these microbes just benefiting from the high levels of exertion, or are they able to contribute also? This study found that certain such bacteria, when given to mice, enabled the mice to run for a longer period on a treadmill. These microbes break down lactic acid, which is generated in our bodies when we push our physical limits, but the study provided evidence that the longer run times were due not to removal of this waste product, but to the propionate compound produced by its degradation. Journal Paper: Scheiman J, Luber JM, Chavkin TA, MacDonald T, Tung A, Pham L-D, Wibowo MC, Wurth RC, Punthambaker S, Tierney BT, Yang Z, Hattab MW, Avila-Pacheco J, Clish CB, Lessard S, Church GM, Kostic AD. 2019. Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism. Nat Med 25:1104–1109. Other interesting stories: Aphids hijacked viral gene to determine whether they grow wings Phage therapy could help treat green sea turtles Email questions or comments tobacteriofiles at gmail dot com. Thanks for listening! Subscribe: Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Android, orRSS. Support the show at Patreon, or check out the show atTwitterorFacebook.

10 MIN6 days ago
Comments
Marathon Microbes Maximize Mileage

Plant Promotes Pathogen-Prohibiting Partner

This episode: Plants stimulate their root bacteria to compete better, and these bacteria help the plants resist disease! Download Episode(7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Bacillus circulans Takeaways In some ways, plants' roots are like our gut. They both absorb nutrients, and they both have complex communities of microbes living alongside the host cells. These microbes can assist their hosts in various ways, and get fed in return. In this study, one species of root bacterium is able to compete against others by producing an antimicrobial compound. The plant stimulates this production with chemical signals, and benefits from its symbionts' increased competitiveness because the bacterium helps the plant resist infection. Journal Paper: Ogran A, Yardeni EH, Keren-Paz A, Bucher T, Jain R, Gilhar O, Kolodkin-Gal I. 2019. The Plant Host Induces Antibiotic Production To Select the Most-Beneficial Colonizers. Appl Environ Microbiol 85:e00512-19. Other interesting s...

10 MIN1 weeks ago
Comments
Plant Promotes Pathogen-Prohibiting Partner

Bacteria Boost Blood Bank Budgets

This episode: Bacterial enzymes could convert donated blood to be compatible with more people in need! Download Episode(8.0 MB, 11.7 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Cucumber leaf spot virus News item Takeaways Blood transfusions using donated blood save many lives. Unfortunately, most donations can't be given to just anyone that needs blood; there must be a match in blood type between donor and recipient, or else a life-threatening reaction could occur in the recipient's body. So type A can't donate to type B, or vice versa, but type O is compatible with the other types. In this study, bacterial enzymes found in human gut microbes have the ability to cleave off the unique type A and B sugars on the surface of red blood cells. This could allow the conversion of all donated blood to type O, greatly increasing the blood bank supply, but more testing is needed to develop the process. Journal Paper: Rahfeld P, Sim L, Moon H, Constantinescu I, Morgan-Lang C, Hallam SJ, Kizhak...

11 MIN2 weeks ago
Comments
Bacteria Boost Blood Bank Budgets

Many Microbiome Mindsets

This episode: Five different ways of thinking about our relationship with our microbes! Download Episode(20.4 MB, 29.8 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Tuhoko rubulavirus 3 News item Takeaways The microbiome by itself is an amazingly complicated community of many different species, with different lifestyles and metabolisms, all living together in competition and cooperation. On top of that, interactions between the microbiome and our body and our lifestyle multiply the complexity even more. This article explores five different views of the microbiome and how it fits into our body (or how the body fits in with the microbiome). From the organ view to the ecosystem view, each is a different way of looking at the different functions, dynamic patterns, and integration of the microbiome in its host, and each provides guidance for how to approach treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Journal Paper: Morar N, Bohannan BJM. 2019. The Conceptual Ecology of the Human Micro...

29 MIN3 weeks ago
Comments
Many Microbiome Mindsets

Skinny Cell Structure Supports

This episode: Not as simple as it sounds—how rod-shaped bacteria maintain their shape! Thanks to Dr. Ethan Garner for his contribution! Download Episode(6.3 MB, 9.2 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Erwinia virus M7 News item Takeaways Microbes seem like they should be a lot simpler than large multicellular organisms, but even what seems like it should be a simple system in microbes can be surprisingly complex. In this case, the system bacteria maintaining their particular cell shape. Spherical cells have it easier: just add more cell material at every point. But for rods, they must make the cell longer without making it wider. How do they accomplish this? Two groups of proteins work together to help rod-shaped species grow, but how they work wasn't specifically known. In this study, it was found that one group of proteins adds more cell material as it moves around the circumference, while the other adds structure to the cell that allows it to maintain shape. The more of...

9 MINAUG 26
Comments
Skinny Cell Structure Supports

Prokaryote Partner Prevents Pathogen Potency

This episode: Bacterial symbionts of amoebas help them survive bacterial infection, and prevent pathogens from spreading to others as much! Download Episode(7.5 MB, 8.1 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Eubacterium dolichum News item Takeaways Amoebas are free-living, single-celled organisms, but they have some things in common with some cells of our immune system (macrophages). For example, certain bacterial pathogens can infect both in similar ways. So it can be useful to study the interactions of amoebas and bacteria to learn about our own immune defenses. In this study, the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii has another bacterial symbiont that helps it resist killing by the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Once the amoebas recovered from the infection, they were more resistant to future challenges. Even better, the symbiont prevented the pathogen from transforming into a more spreadable form like it does when infecting amoebas alone. Journal Paper: König L, We...

8 MINAUG 12
Comments
Prokaryote Partner Prevents Pathogen Potency

Magnetic Microbes Maneuver Marine Manager

This episode: A marine protist can orient itself along magnetic fields thanks to bacterial symbionts on its surface that make magnetic nanoparticles! Download Episode(7.2 MB, 7.9 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 3 Takeaways Various kinds of bacteria can orient their movement along a magnetic field. These are called magnetotactic, and they use this ability to swim toward or away from the surface of their aquatic habitat, to adjust their oxygen exposure according to their preference. No eukaryotic microbes have yet been discovered that can sense and react to magnetic fields like these prokaryotes. In this study, however, a protist was discovered that can do it via its partnership with ectosymbionts, or bacteria attached to its surface, that sense magnetism and orient their host's movement. In return, factors of the host's metabolism may feed its symbionts. Journal Paper: Monteil CL, Vallenet D, Menguy N, Benzerara K, Barbe V, Fouteau S,...

7 MINAUG 5
Comments
Magnetic Microbes Maneuver Marine Manager

Slime Stores Sodium Sensibility

This episode: Slime molds can learn to get used to salt and hold on to that memory even after a period of dormancy! Download Episode(8.9 MB, 9.7 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Nocardia transvalensis News item Takeaways Slime mold Physarum polycephalum has many surprisingly intelligent abilities, despite being only a single cell. Studying how these abilities work in the cell can teach us new ways that life can do things. The ability of interest here is habituation, or learning not to avoid a chemical that seems unpleasant to the cell but is not necessarily harmful, especially with a food reward. The slime mold can become habituated to salt, in this case, learning to tolerate it enough to pass through a gradient of increasing concentration to get to some food as quickly as it crosses the same distance with no salt present. The scientists here learned that the cell takes up sodium into itself as it habituates, and holds onto both sodium and its memory through a period of ...

9 MINJUL 15
Comments
Slime Stores Sodium Sensibility

Friendly Phages Find Foes

This episode: Bacteria carry deadly phages and use them against rival strains! Download Episode(9.4 MB, 10.2 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Bifidobacterium bifidum News item Takeaways Bacteria such as Escherichia coli live in environments such as the gut with many other types of microbes, and often develop communities of microbes cooperating and/or competing with each other for resources. But in order to cooperate or compete, bacteria must first be able to identify and discriminate between themselves and others. Sometimes microbes do this by exchanging membrane molecules, or secreting chemical signals that only partners can detect, or transferring plasmids or producing antimicrobial compounds that kill competitors. In the current study, scientists discovered a strain of E. coli that carries around phages that help them distinguish other strains and compete with them. When this strain encounters another, the phages it carries attack and destroy cells of the other strain...

10 MINJUL 8
Comments
Friendly Phages Find Foes

Prokaryotes Pacify Protein Problem

This episode: Engineered bacteria could help people digest an essential nutrient when they can't digest it themselves! Download Episode(8.5 MB, 9.3 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Kadipiro virus News item(paywall) Science-Based Medicine blog article about phenylketonuria, Synlogic, and engineering bacteria to treat this disorder, with lots of good detail Takeaways Treating genetic disorders can be very difficult. Sometimes they can be managed, with lifestyle, diet, or medication, but cure has almost always been out of the picture. With a disorder such as phenylketonuria (PKU), for example, in which the body is unable to fully metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, diet and medication may work to some extent. In an effort to provide better options for PKU, scientists at Synlogic, Inc have created a strain of Escherichia coli that produces phenylalanine-degrading enzymes in the gut. The hope is that ingesting this bacterium could allow PKU patients to be less restrictiv...

9 MINJUL 1
Comments
Prokaryotes Pacify Protein Problem

Latest Episodes

Marathon Microbes Maximize Mileage

This episode: Bacteria found in the guts of serious athletes help mice exercise longer by transforming their metabolic waste! Download Episode(7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans News item Takeaways Our gut microbes affect many aspects of health, and many aspects of how we live affect our microbes. One such aspect is physical exertion, which has been associated with enrichment of various microbes in the guts of athletes. This observation led to the question: are these microbes just benefiting from the high levels of exertion, or are they able to contribute also? This study found that certain such bacteria, when given to mice, enabled the mice to run for a longer period on a treadmill. These microbes break down lactic acid, which is generated in our bodies when we push our physical limits, but the study provided evidence that the longer run times were due not to removal of this waste product, but to the propionate compound produced by its degradation. Journal Paper: Scheiman J, Luber JM, Chavkin TA, MacDonald T, Tung A, Pham L-D, Wibowo MC, Wurth RC, Punthambaker S, Tierney BT, Yang Z, Hattab MW, Avila-Pacheco J, Clish CB, Lessard S, Church GM, Kostic AD. 2019. Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism. Nat Med 25:1104–1109. Other interesting stories: Aphids hijacked viral gene to determine whether they grow wings Phage therapy could help treat green sea turtles Email questions or comments tobacteriofiles at gmail dot com. Thanks for listening! Subscribe: Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Android, orRSS. Support the show at Patreon, or check out the show atTwitterorFacebook.

10 MIN6 days ago
Comments
Marathon Microbes Maximize Mileage

Plant Promotes Pathogen-Prohibiting Partner

This episode: Plants stimulate their root bacteria to compete better, and these bacteria help the plants resist disease! Download Episode(7.3 MB, 10.6 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Bacillus circulans Takeaways In some ways, plants' roots are like our gut. They both absorb nutrients, and they both have complex communities of microbes living alongside the host cells. These microbes can assist their hosts in various ways, and get fed in return. In this study, one species of root bacterium is able to compete against others by producing an antimicrobial compound. The plant stimulates this production with chemical signals, and benefits from its symbionts' increased competitiveness because the bacterium helps the plant resist infection. Journal Paper: Ogran A, Yardeni EH, Keren-Paz A, Bucher T, Jain R, Gilhar O, Kolodkin-Gal I. 2019. The Plant Host Induces Antibiotic Production To Select the Most-Beneficial Colonizers. Appl Environ Microbiol 85:e00512-19. Other interesting s...

10 MIN1 weeks ago
Comments
Plant Promotes Pathogen-Prohibiting Partner

Bacteria Boost Blood Bank Budgets

This episode: Bacterial enzymes could convert donated blood to be compatible with more people in need! Download Episode(8.0 MB, 11.7 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Cucumber leaf spot virus News item Takeaways Blood transfusions using donated blood save many lives. Unfortunately, most donations can't be given to just anyone that needs blood; there must be a match in blood type between donor and recipient, or else a life-threatening reaction could occur in the recipient's body. So type A can't donate to type B, or vice versa, but type O is compatible with the other types. In this study, bacterial enzymes found in human gut microbes have the ability to cleave off the unique type A and B sugars on the surface of red blood cells. This could allow the conversion of all donated blood to type O, greatly increasing the blood bank supply, but more testing is needed to develop the process. Journal Paper: Rahfeld P, Sim L, Moon H, Constantinescu I, Morgan-Lang C, Hallam SJ, Kizhak...

11 MIN2 weeks ago
Comments
Bacteria Boost Blood Bank Budgets

Many Microbiome Mindsets

This episode: Five different ways of thinking about our relationship with our microbes! Download Episode(20.4 MB, 29.8 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Tuhoko rubulavirus 3 News item Takeaways The microbiome by itself is an amazingly complicated community of many different species, with different lifestyles and metabolisms, all living together in competition and cooperation. On top of that, interactions between the microbiome and our body and our lifestyle multiply the complexity even more. This article explores five different views of the microbiome and how it fits into our body (or how the body fits in with the microbiome). From the organ view to the ecosystem view, each is a different way of looking at the different functions, dynamic patterns, and integration of the microbiome in its host, and each provides guidance for how to approach treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Journal Paper: Morar N, Bohannan BJM. 2019. The Conceptual Ecology of the Human Micro...

29 MIN3 weeks ago
Comments
Many Microbiome Mindsets

Skinny Cell Structure Supports

This episode: Not as simple as it sounds—how rod-shaped bacteria maintain their shape! Thanks to Dr. Ethan Garner for his contribution! Download Episode(6.3 MB, 9.2 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Erwinia virus M7 News item Takeaways Microbes seem like they should be a lot simpler than large multicellular organisms, but even what seems like it should be a simple system in microbes can be surprisingly complex. In this case, the system bacteria maintaining their particular cell shape. Spherical cells have it easier: just add more cell material at every point. But for rods, they must make the cell longer without making it wider. How do they accomplish this? Two groups of proteins work together to help rod-shaped species grow, but how they work wasn't specifically known. In this study, it was found that one group of proteins adds more cell material as it moves around the circumference, while the other adds structure to the cell that allows it to maintain shape. The more of...

9 MINAUG 26
Comments
Skinny Cell Structure Supports

Prokaryote Partner Prevents Pathogen Potency

This episode: Bacterial symbionts of amoebas help them survive bacterial infection, and prevent pathogens from spreading to others as much! Download Episode(7.5 MB, 8.1 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Eubacterium dolichum News item Takeaways Amoebas are free-living, single-celled organisms, but they have some things in common with some cells of our immune system (macrophages). For example, certain bacterial pathogens can infect both in similar ways. So it can be useful to study the interactions of amoebas and bacteria to learn about our own immune defenses. In this study, the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii has another bacterial symbiont that helps it resist killing by the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Once the amoebas recovered from the infection, they were more resistant to future challenges. Even better, the symbiont prevented the pathogen from transforming into a more spreadable form like it does when infecting amoebas alone. Journal Paper: König L, We...

8 MINAUG 12
Comments
Prokaryote Partner Prevents Pathogen Potency

Magnetic Microbes Maneuver Marine Manager

This episode: A marine protist can orient itself along magnetic fields thanks to bacterial symbionts on its surface that make magnetic nanoparticles! Download Episode(7.2 MB, 7.9 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 3 Takeaways Various kinds of bacteria can orient their movement along a magnetic field. These are called magnetotactic, and they use this ability to swim toward or away from the surface of their aquatic habitat, to adjust their oxygen exposure according to their preference. No eukaryotic microbes have yet been discovered that can sense and react to magnetic fields like these prokaryotes. In this study, however, a protist was discovered that can do it via its partnership with ectosymbionts, or bacteria attached to its surface, that sense magnetism and orient their host's movement. In return, factors of the host's metabolism may feed its symbionts. Journal Paper: Monteil CL, Vallenet D, Menguy N, Benzerara K, Barbe V, Fouteau S,...

7 MINAUG 5
Comments
Magnetic Microbes Maneuver Marine Manager

Slime Stores Sodium Sensibility

This episode: Slime molds can learn to get used to salt and hold on to that memory even after a period of dormancy! Download Episode(8.9 MB, 9.7 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Nocardia transvalensis News item Takeaways Slime mold Physarum polycephalum has many surprisingly intelligent abilities, despite being only a single cell. Studying how these abilities work in the cell can teach us new ways that life can do things. The ability of interest here is habituation, or learning not to avoid a chemical that seems unpleasant to the cell but is not necessarily harmful, especially with a food reward. The slime mold can become habituated to salt, in this case, learning to tolerate it enough to pass through a gradient of increasing concentration to get to some food as quickly as it crosses the same distance with no salt present. The scientists here learned that the cell takes up sodium into itself as it habituates, and holds onto both sodium and its memory through a period of ...

9 MINJUL 15
Comments
Slime Stores Sodium Sensibility

Friendly Phages Find Foes

This episode: Bacteria carry deadly phages and use them against rival strains! Download Episode(9.4 MB, 10.2 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Bifidobacterium bifidum News item Takeaways Bacteria such as Escherichia coli live in environments such as the gut with many other types of microbes, and often develop communities of microbes cooperating and/or competing with each other for resources. But in order to cooperate or compete, bacteria must first be able to identify and discriminate between themselves and others. Sometimes microbes do this by exchanging membrane molecules, or secreting chemical signals that only partners can detect, or transferring plasmids or producing antimicrobial compounds that kill competitors. In the current study, scientists discovered a strain of E. coli that carries around phages that help them distinguish other strains and compete with them. When this strain encounters another, the phages it carries attack and destroy cells of the other strain...

10 MINJUL 8
Comments
Friendly Phages Find Foes

Prokaryotes Pacify Protein Problem

This episode: Engineered bacteria could help people digest an essential nutrient when they can't digest it themselves! Download Episode(8.5 MB, 9.3 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Kadipiro virus News item(paywall) Science-Based Medicine blog article about phenylketonuria, Synlogic, and engineering bacteria to treat this disorder, with lots of good detail Takeaways Treating genetic disorders can be very difficult. Sometimes they can be managed, with lifestyle, diet, or medication, but cure has almost always been out of the picture. With a disorder such as phenylketonuria (PKU), for example, in which the body is unable to fully metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, diet and medication may work to some extent. In an effort to provide better options for PKU, scientists at Synlogic, Inc have created a strain of Escherichia coli that produces phenylalanine-degrading enzymes in the gut. The hope is that ingesting this bacterium could allow PKU patients to be less restrictiv...

9 MINJUL 1
Comments
Prokaryotes Pacify Protein Problem