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Short And Sweet AI

Dr. Peper

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Short And Sweet AI

Short And Sweet AI

Dr. Peper

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A podcast on Artificial Intelligence

Latest Episodes

What is Quantum Computing? part 2

From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m discussing more about quantum computing. Regular computers use a binary system of ones and zeros or bits. Quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits which exist in superposition and make them very powerful. Quantum computing is a very different technology from anything we’ve seen because qubits can exist in two states at once. They can be like a coin that is spinning and is both heads and tails at once. In order to explain how this could exist, quantum computing which is based on quantum physics has created theories of the existence of parallel universes. In a parallel universe you could have a coin be heads and in a separate parallel universe, it could be tails. Yeah, this stuff gets pretty crazy, very fast. In the previous podcast I talked about the super powerful state of superposition. And I talked about entanglements where multiple qubits are physically separated but act like they’re entangled and give similar results. Added to that is this is all taking place in a computer which looks like a fantastic chandelier, made that way in order to create very cold conditions similar to outer space. Absolute zero, outerspace. But are quantum computers a reality? There are many groups all over the world working on this technology: IBM, Google, Intel, the Chinese government, the US government, private start up groups such as Rigetti Computing and more. All these groups have been working feverishly for the ultimate breakthrough. Then in 2019 Google announced its’ quantum computer had solved a mathematical problem in 3 minutes 32 seconds. It would have taken the most powerful, existing supercomputer more than 10,000 years to solve the problem. That’s the difference in magnitude and power between a regular supercomputer and a quantum computer. As the scientists explained, the answer to the problem wasn’t important, it really didn’t do anything. But what the Google quantum computer accomplished was the same as the Wright brothers first plane flight. It showed that quantum computing was really possible even though its true potential is years in the future. What’s holding the technology back? Well, quantum type problems. Qubits are very sensitive and must be shielded from heat, electrical interference, and other metals, and cooled down to just above absolute zero in order to complete their calculations. And you need at least 50 qubits to have a quantum computer but groups of qubits are very fragile and can fall apart or de-cohere. This leads to errors in the calculations. Scientists are confident they will solve these problems in the next decade and then we will really see what these computers can do. That goes back to how qubits work. They’re very powerful because they can deal with uncertainty. And that’s how the laws of atoms and subatomic particles called quantum physics work. In nature, things smaller than the atom are not always on or off. They don’t follow the laws of larger things in nature such as gravity, relativity or E equals MC squared. With regular computers if you want to solve a maze, it will go down every single path, one after the other, until it finds the right one. A quantum computer works by the laws of subatomic particles and goes down every path at once because it can operate with uncertainty; it can hold each alternative path as a possibility. Technology this powerful can be used to simulate large complicated problems with uncertainty such as forecast financial markets, find better products such as batteries for self-driving cars, new drugs for medications, or even using quantum computing to understand quantum physics. And cryptography will be saved by quantum computing. New quantum encryption uses the uncertainty principle where everything influences th...

5 MINMAY 5
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What is Quantum Computing? part 2

What is Quantum Computing?

From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m talking about one of the most challenging ideas I’ve ever discussed, quantum computing. Quantum computing excites and perplexes me. It has all these strange, science fiction parts to it such as superposition, entanglement, parallel universes, yes, I said parallel universes, temperatures as cold a deep space, well, just above absolute zero really, and of course qubits. And quantum computers have been described as looking like steampunk chandeliers. Quantum Bits = Qubits Let’s start with qubits. In traditional computers, information is coded as binary units which are either ones or zeros and referred to as bits. They’re like tiny switches that can be either in the off position, represented by a zero, or in the on position, represented by a one. Computers are made up of millions of these bits in some combination of ones and zeros. This binary system is how our phones, apps, websites and the internet work. Quantum computing is completely different. It involves a philosophical leap really. It involves the idea that a single object can be in two states at the same time, so it can be a one and a zero at the same time, or it can be on and off at the same time. I know, it sounds crazy. Superposition Take a coin for example, if you flip a coin, it can be either heads or tails. But during the flip, the coin is spinning and is in both states at once, heads and tails at the same time. This is called superposition. Quantum computing stores a combination of one and zeros in both states, on and off, at once, in the form of qubits. Quantum computers are powered by collections of qubits in superposition and that’s what makes them so powerful. Entanglements The other thing qubits do is called entanglement. When two particles are linked together in quantum computing it’s called entanglement even if they’re physically separate. Normally when you flip a coin, tossing one coin won’t affect the next coin toss. But in quantum computing, two spinning coins can be linked together and if one comes up heads, the other one will also come up heads.Then if you can string together multiple qubits you can tackle the problems that even our best computers can’t solve. But quantum computers are not really just about doing things faster or more efficiently. They can do things we can’t even dream of, things our everyday supercomputers can’t possibly do. Light Bulb, Not Candle A quantum physicist, Shohini Ghose, says a quantum computer is not just a more powerful supercomputer just as a light bulb is not a more powerful version of a candle. You cannot build a light bulb by building better and better candles. A light bulb is a different technology just as quantum computing is a different technology. Having a lot more candles won’t achieve the same effect of what a light bulb can do because they’re two different technologies. And just like a light bulb transformed society, quantum computers have the potential to impact many, many different aspects of our lives. Magic Quantum computing is so strange, so futuristic, so exuberant, really, I love it. To me it’s what the science fiction guru, Arthur C. Clarke, was thinking about when he said, “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” There’s so much more to discuss about qubits, quantum computing, and the space race to quantum supremacy in my next episode. Until then, from Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper.

4 MINAPR 29
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What is Quantum Computing?

A Physician during COVID

From short and sweet AI, I’m Dr Peper. I’ve interrupted my podcasts in the last few weeks in order to do what my first passion is, be a physician and care for patients as we’ve experienced a COVID surge in my area. I’ve had to be available 24/7 to provide care to my patients, discuss things with nursing staff and facility staff and speak with families about their loved ones. The families, they are very worried, scared, not being able to see their mother or father who are living in these facilities but are on lockdown. Patients are in their rooms eating, meals in their rooms, not able to come out to participate in activities in order to protect them and keep them safe from the COVID virus. It’s been a very humbling and sad few weeks as many of my patients have died. My team and I at these facilities have worked to make sure that in these, that in unwanted and really complicated situations, they have the best death possible and are able to pass away in what is essentially their homes being taken care of by caregivers who know them with hospice services available to them. But despite all these efforts, they do end up dying without their families being present. They die separated from their families. They don’t die alone. The caregivers and nursing staff are there which um brings some comfort to know. And there are many, many people working very bravely and very difficult jobs to ensure the safety and try keep these frail, vulnerable residents safe. So all my time and attention has been my patients in the past few weeks but before all this crescendoed in just a short time, I was working on a podcast about an AI researcher known as, um, called Geoffrey Hinton. He’s someone in the field of artificial intelligence who is known as the godfather of AI. And there were similar resonating themes from what I was learning about him and his life and what we’re experiencing now. Things such well, mainly perseverance and dedication and believing in what we’re doing. And this will become more clear when I’m able to record and release that podcast. But it does, um, help to know that at all times people have had to deal with difficulties and we are defined not by our successes, but how we deal with the difficulties and the fortitude we’re able to find within ourselves when things aren’t going well. And I would say even more so, I’ve been thinking day after day of a scene in the Hamilton musical called Valley Forge and there’s a song where Alexander Hamilton is getting so frustrated trying to help the army and the revolution and George Washington and not receiving any aid from the Continental Congress or other merchants and George Washington tries to counsel Hamilton to be calm but the song ends on a very somber note, which I think is very applicable and plays over in my head on these days when I’m signing so many death certificates and the song lyrics say that we’re gonna fly a lot of flags half-mast, and that’s what we, in this country, are doing now. It’s a battle. It’s a fight against an invisible, um, enemy. But what I’ve seen of the people dedicated to doing what they have been trained to do and what they’ve dedicated their lives to do. I, I see it that we will pull through to the other side of this. And I know we will learn from this and be more vigilant and more ready the next time, so that so many people do not die.From short and sweet AI. I’m Dr Peper sending you all my best thoughts, be well and stay safe.

5 MINAPR 22
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A Physician during COVID

How to Train Your Emotion AI

How do you train neural networks to understand and simulate human emotions? From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m discussing how to train your AI. We use 10,000 possible combinations of muscle movements in the face to create one facial expression. Add to this more than 400 possible voice inflections, along with thousands of hand and body gestures. All these combinations change continuously throughout a human conversation. Our brains process these complex, sometimes intense emotions, subconsciously, in microseconds, over and over again throughout the day. Emotion and Datasets The way AI can help us is to have machines that can effectively communicate with us and understand what we want. They need to recognize our emotional state, how we’re feeling, through our voice, facial expressions and nonverbal cues. In order to teach computers how to understand emotions, AI researchers use machine learning and neural networks. Machines are very good at analyzing large amounts of data. We’re talking a dataset that has almost 8 million facial expressions. When a machine trains on that many variations, it learns to detect patterns in facial movements and even the nuances between a smirk and a smile. The machines can listen to voice tone and recognize sounds that indicate stress or anger. How does it do this? Emotion Metrics Using computer vision, the algorithms identify key landmarks on the face such as the tip of the nose, the corners of the mouth or the corners of the eyebrows. Deep learning algorithms then analyze the pixels of the images to classify the expressions. Combinations of these facial expressions are then mapped to emotions. Another program for analyzing speech evaluates not what is said, but how it is said, calculating changes in tone, loudness, tempo and voice quality to understand what’s happening and the emotion and gender of the speaker. These are called emotion metrics. And when tested against human emotions, the key emotion metrics have accuracies above 90%. Many companies are working on emotion AI. Amazon has a network for speech based emotion detection. Another company, Affectiva, has a neural network called SoundNet, that can classify anger from audio data in 1.2 seconds, regardless of the speaker’s language. That’s as fast as a human can detect anger from a voice. Another company, Cogito, has a system which analyzes voices, of military veterans with PTSD, to determine if they need help. FATE Flaws But there are worries about this technology. Many people in the field raise concerns that these types of systems have FATE flaws. FATE flaws in AI stand for fairness, accountability, transparency and ethical flaws. For example, a study with one facial recognition algorithm, showed faces of black people are rated as angrier, than faces of white people, even when the faces of black people were smiling. Lisa Barret, a professor of psychology, spent 2 years along with 4 other scientists scrutinizing the evidence, for the accuracy of emotion AI. They concluded that companies using AI cannot reliably fingerprint, emotions through expressions. However, she does think in the future, emotions can be measured more accurately, when more sophisticated metrics are available. As she explained: “it’s intuitive that emotions are very complex. Sometimes people cry in anger, sometimes they shout, some people laugh when angry and sometimes, they just sit silently and plan the demise of their enemy”. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper. As always you can find further reading, videos and podcasts in the show notes.

4 MINMAR 24
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How to Train Your Emotion AI

What is Emotion AI?

Humans are incredibly skilled at identifying the emotions in a conversation. We can “hear” a smile. And we correctly identify emotions in a voice even when we don’t speak the language. In fact more than 50 categories exist within the human emotions of surprise, joy, anger, sadness and fear. And each is conveyed through body language, words or tone. When you recognize these signals and respond appropriately, you have high emotional intelligence or high EQ. AI has high IQ but low EQ We know emotional intelligence and social skills correlate with a person’s potential for success in life. On the other hand, we live in a high IQ world surrounded with super advanced technology and AI systems developed to help us. But they have absolutely no EQ, no emotional intelligence. We need to build emotionally intelligent machines that truly understand human needs so we can have successful interactions with them. Give machines emotions The idea of making emotionally intelligent AI has been around for a long time. In 1997 an MIT Media lab professor, Rosalind Picard, published a book about computers and emotions entitled “Affective Computing”. Affect is a psychology term and refers to feeling, emotion, or mood. Picard is credited with starting the field of computer science known as affective computing. It’s also called emotional artificial intelligence or emotion AI. Her book outlined how to give machines the skills of emotional intelligence so they can be genuinely intelligent and interact with us naturally. She believes computers should have the ability to recognize, understand, to even have and express, emotions. And by the way, this sounds very similar to what Ray Kurzweil has predicted in some of his conversations about the future. The need for emotion datasets In 2009 Picard and Rana el Kaliouby, a computer scientist from MIT, started an AI company called Affectiva based on emotion recognition technology. Subsequently, the company created a dataset of 7.9 million faces from 87 countries with recorded expressions for just about every human emotion. Above all, Picard and Kaliouby wanted to avoid biases in Affectiva’s algorithms. They therefore used a diversity of faces to pick up the differences in expressions from all ethnic groups, ages, genders and cultural backgrounds. Incidentally, I talked about the bias in large datasets in a previous flash talk on ImageNet. Today Affectiva’s algorithms can detect human emotion from facial expressions and vocal cues. But even more, Kaliouby wants to train machines to recognize the subtle nuances in human emotions. Humans use a lot of nonverbal cues. Gestures, body language, voice tone all contribute to how emotions are communicated. For that reason researchers plan to develop emotion AI that is multimodal and can detect emotion the way humans do from multiple channels. Ultimately, Kaliouby wants to fuse digital technology with an ability to understand the humans using it. The application of emotion AI The power to detect human emotion has implications for every aspect of society. Emotion AI technology can detect mental and physical ailments based on how patients look or sound. In marketing it determines consumer’s reactions to commercials and TV shows. In the automotive world, emotion AI can identify distractions going on inside the car that could affect safety, such as arguments or a driver’s lack of focus. Finally, the biggest role so far has been in customer service. Call centers are already using emotion AI to identify the mood of customers on the phone.

5 MINMAR 18
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What is Emotion AI?

AI Audiobooks

DeepZen has released for purchase the first AI narrated audiobook. From and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m talking about AI audiobooks. In a previous flash talk, I discussed how we’re entering a voice first future. With smart assistants leading the way, we will request and consume information by speaking rather than type or read from a screen. We will type less on our laptops and smart phones and communicate more with voice. And as a result, people will consume more audiobooks. Text to Speech There are about one million books published each year in the US. Despite this only 40,000 books are recorded due to the costs. Audiobooks are time consuming and can cost up to $5000 per book to record. Not surprisingly then, companies have focused on perfecting AI to change text into speech through deep learning based systems. And there’s a whole history of machine learning breakthroughs over the last few years which has led to progressive improvement in the natural language processi...

3 MINMAR 10
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AI Audiobooks

AI and Coronavirus

Is there an upside to the coronavirus? Nope. But the outbreak did show how AI can be used to predict and accurately track a pandemic. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper, and today I’m talking about what everyone is talking about, the coronavirus or COVID 19. There are so many ways AI impacts the cornavirus outbreak. Chinese drones are disinfecting public areas and track people who don’t adhere to quarantine. Robots decontaminate hospital rooms. Self-driving cars in China deliver supplies to medical workers. Facial recognition cameras search for people not wearing their mandated face mask. Infrared temperature scanners detect fevers in large groups of people. Doctors use AI software to find evidence of coronavirus in lung scans from patients who are ill. Think about what happened with the SARS virus in 2003 and compare that to the coronavirus today. What you realize is over the last two decades AI has really advanced how we respond to pandemics. Early Prediction with AI Early ...

5 MINMAR 3
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AI and Coronavirus

What is Edge AI or Edge Computing?

Data and AI are moving out of the cloud onto the edge of the network. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper. And today I’m talking about edge AI. The Cloud First there were mainframe computers which stored lots of data. Then data was stored on hard drives on desktop computers. Then laptop computers revolutionized our experience and we could access the internet to get unlimited data that’s stored in the cloud. And as you know, the cloud is a term referring to the massive number of computer servers which collect and store data from the internet. These servers are located in data centers all over the world. Now with mobile devices, we have access to data anytime, anywhere via the cloud. Cloud Problems But connecting to the cloud comes with problems such as the lag time between the cloud and the smart device, the cost of storing data in the cloud, and more pressing issues of privacy. We realize smart assistants are sending snippets of our audio back to the cloud for training purpose...

4 MINFEB 29
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What is Edge AI or Edge Computing?

5G: Fifth Generation Wireless. What is it?

A consumer study found 58% of Americans don’t understand what 5G is. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper, with an explanation of 5G. What Is 5G? 5G stands for fifth generation cellular wireless. And it’s important to know it’s not just another “G” of 4G technology. It won’t work the same as 4G. 2020 is the year super fast 5G is expectd to have a slow roll out. That means the first 5G networks will be faster than 4G. But 5G won’t achieve it’s fastest speeds until companies complete the infrastructure. To get these benefits, users will have to buy new phones and the wireless providers will need to install new networking equipment. How Fast Is 5G? How much faster is 5G? Downloading a typical movie to your phone would take 17 secoonds with 5G compared to six minutes for 4G. 5G wireless will have connection speeds 10 – 20 times faster than the speediest home internet service. And it will be 600 times faster than typical 4G speeds on your phone today. 5G cellular technology uses something called millimeter-wave networks or mmWave. With mmWave, data can be streamed to phones at extremely fast rates but only over short distances. So a huge number of access points or small cell sites will be needed to transfer the signals instead of a few huge cell towers. But is it only speed that matters? There’s another speed, called latency speed, that’s perhaps even more important. The time between you asking Siri a question, searching the web, and getting a response will be faster. This is because of the lag time or latency speed with 5G is faster due to newer networking technology and more reliable signals. Autonomous Vehicles But does all this really make 5G revolutionary and justify the hype. Quite honestly, yes. Because it’s what this technology can now accomplish that’s so exciting. And this comes back to Iot, the internet of things which I discussed last time. The shorter latencies of 5G allow things connected to the internet to communicate directly to each other. MmWave technology allows thousands of things to be directly connected together at once. This technology will truly kickstart fully autonomous vehicles. Remember autonomous vehicles which I talked about in a previous episode have no driver in the car unlike self driving vehicles with a steering wheel and a driver supervising. With 5G, cars are synchronized to traffic lights and each other. Future traffic has been described as being an elaborate street level ballet where cars flow like schools of fish in unison without colliding. There is even a new anticipated infrastructure called CV2X which stands for “cellular vehicle to everything”. Virtual Reality Because of 5G, IoT and something called edge computing, virtual reality becomes the new reality. With these 3 technologies, the perfect VR that exists today only in controlled scientific labs can now exist anywhere. These are perfect conditions for creating realistic representations of you with your specific tics and mannerisms. VR environments can be digitized and shared between users miles apart in real time. We will replace FaceTime with HologramTime. As we chat and interact with someone in their virtual world, they see us as holograms right next to them in their real world. We are one step closer to Ready Player One. I’ve talked about IoT and 5G but the trifecta includes another technology called edge AI.

4 MINFEB 25
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5G: Fifth Generation Wireless. What is it?

What is IoT and Why Does It Matter?

IoT, 5G and Edge Computing: these 3 different terms are everywhere and it’s time to talk about them. Today let’s discuss the Internet of things or IoT and see why it matters. IoT After all my research, the best definition I’ve found for the internet of things is by Calum McClelland, and, by the way, he has a lot of c’s and l’s in his name. Calum’s definiton of the internet of things is pretty simple. He says it means taking all the things in the world and connecting them to the internet. Voilà! But what does that mean, all the things in the world? Well let’s look at the most popular by far IoT: smartphones. As Calum explains, with a smartphone you can listen to any song in the world. But not every song in the world is stored on your smartphone. In fact every song in the world is stored somewhere else. But your phone can ask for that song by being connected to the internet and then stream it to your device. Contrary to popular belief, your phone is not a super computer with u...

4 MINFEB 19
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What is IoT and Why Does It Matter?

Latest Episodes

What is Quantum Computing? part 2

From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m discussing more about quantum computing. Regular computers use a binary system of ones and zeros or bits. Quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits which exist in superposition and make them very powerful. Quantum computing is a very different technology from anything we’ve seen because qubits can exist in two states at once. They can be like a coin that is spinning and is both heads and tails at once. In order to explain how this could exist, quantum computing which is based on quantum physics has created theories of the existence of parallel universes. In a parallel universe you could have a coin be heads and in a separate parallel universe, it could be tails. Yeah, this stuff gets pretty crazy, very fast. In the previous podcast I talked about the super powerful state of superposition. And I talked about entanglements where multiple qubits are physically separated but act like they’re entangled and give similar results. Added to that is this is all taking place in a computer which looks like a fantastic chandelier, made that way in order to create very cold conditions similar to outer space. Absolute zero, outerspace. But are quantum computers a reality? There are many groups all over the world working on this technology: IBM, Google, Intel, the Chinese government, the US government, private start up groups such as Rigetti Computing and more. All these groups have been working feverishly for the ultimate breakthrough. Then in 2019 Google announced its’ quantum computer had solved a mathematical problem in 3 minutes 32 seconds. It would have taken the most powerful, existing supercomputer more than 10,000 years to solve the problem. That’s the difference in magnitude and power between a regular supercomputer and a quantum computer. As the scientists explained, the answer to the problem wasn’t important, it really didn’t do anything. But what the Google quantum computer accomplished was the same as the Wright brothers first plane flight. It showed that quantum computing was really possible even though its true potential is years in the future. What’s holding the technology back? Well, quantum type problems. Qubits are very sensitive and must be shielded from heat, electrical interference, and other metals, and cooled down to just above absolute zero in order to complete their calculations. And you need at least 50 qubits to have a quantum computer but groups of qubits are very fragile and can fall apart or de-cohere. This leads to errors in the calculations. Scientists are confident they will solve these problems in the next decade and then we will really see what these computers can do. That goes back to how qubits work. They’re very powerful because they can deal with uncertainty. And that’s how the laws of atoms and subatomic particles called quantum physics work. In nature, things smaller than the atom are not always on or off. They don’t follow the laws of larger things in nature such as gravity, relativity or E equals MC squared. With regular computers if you want to solve a maze, it will go down every single path, one after the other, until it finds the right one. A quantum computer works by the laws of subatomic particles and goes down every path at once because it can operate with uncertainty; it can hold each alternative path as a possibility. Technology this powerful can be used to simulate large complicated problems with uncertainty such as forecast financial markets, find better products such as batteries for self-driving cars, new drugs for medications, or even using quantum computing to understand quantum physics. And cryptography will be saved by quantum computing. New quantum encryption uses the uncertainty principle where everything influences th...

5 MINMAY 5
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What is Quantum Computing? part 2

What is Quantum Computing?

From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m talking about one of the most challenging ideas I’ve ever discussed, quantum computing. Quantum computing excites and perplexes me. It has all these strange, science fiction parts to it such as superposition, entanglement, parallel universes, yes, I said parallel universes, temperatures as cold a deep space, well, just above absolute zero really, and of course qubits. And quantum computers have been described as looking like steampunk chandeliers. Quantum Bits = Qubits Let’s start with qubits. In traditional computers, information is coded as binary units which are either ones or zeros and referred to as bits. They’re like tiny switches that can be either in the off position, represented by a zero, or in the on position, represented by a one. Computers are made up of millions of these bits in some combination of ones and zeros. This binary system is how our phones, apps, websites and the internet work. Quantum computing is completely different. It involves a philosophical leap really. It involves the idea that a single object can be in two states at the same time, so it can be a one and a zero at the same time, or it can be on and off at the same time. I know, it sounds crazy. Superposition Take a coin for example, if you flip a coin, it can be either heads or tails. But during the flip, the coin is spinning and is in both states at once, heads and tails at the same time. This is called superposition. Quantum computing stores a combination of one and zeros in both states, on and off, at once, in the form of qubits. Quantum computers are powered by collections of qubits in superposition and that’s what makes them so powerful. Entanglements The other thing qubits do is called entanglement. When two particles are linked together in quantum computing it’s called entanglement even if they’re physically separate. Normally when you flip a coin, tossing one coin won’t affect the next coin toss. But in quantum computing, two spinning coins can be linked together and if one comes up heads, the other one will also come up heads.Then if you can string together multiple qubits you can tackle the problems that even our best computers can’t solve. But quantum computers are not really just about doing things faster or more efficiently. They can do things we can’t even dream of, things our everyday supercomputers can’t possibly do. Light Bulb, Not Candle A quantum physicist, Shohini Ghose, says a quantum computer is not just a more powerful supercomputer just as a light bulb is not a more powerful version of a candle. You cannot build a light bulb by building better and better candles. A light bulb is a different technology just as quantum computing is a different technology. Having a lot more candles won’t achieve the same effect of what a light bulb can do because they’re two different technologies. And just like a light bulb transformed society, quantum computers have the potential to impact many, many different aspects of our lives. Magic Quantum computing is so strange, so futuristic, so exuberant, really, I love it. To me it’s what the science fiction guru, Arthur C. Clarke, was thinking about when he said, “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” There’s so much more to discuss about qubits, quantum computing, and the space race to quantum supremacy in my next episode. Until then, from Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper.

4 MINAPR 29
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What is Quantum Computing?

A Physician during COVID

From short and sweet AI, I’m Dr Peper. I’ve interrupted my podcasts in the last few weeks in order to do what my first passion is, be a physician and care for patients as we’ve experienced a COVID surge in my area. I’ve had to be available 24/7 to provide care to my patients, discuss things with nursing staff and facility staff and speak with families about their loved ones. The families, they are very worried, scared, not being able to see their mother or father who are living in these facilities but are on lockdown. Patients are in their rooms eating, meals in their rooms, not able to come out to participate in activities in order to protect them and keep them safe from the COVID virus. It’s been a very humbling and sad few weeks as many of my patients have died. My team and I at these facilities have worked to make sure that in these, that in unwanted and really complicated situations, they have the best death possible and are able to pass away in what is essentially their homes being taken care of by caregivers who know them with hospice services available to them. But despite all these efforts, they do end up dying without their families being present. They die separated from their families. They don’t die alone. The caregivers and nursing staff are there which um brings some comfort to know. And there are many, many people working very bravely and very difficult jobs to ensure the safety and try keep these frail, vulnerable residents safe. So all my time and attention has been my patients in the past few weeks but before all this crescendoed in just a short time, I was working on a podcast about an AI researcher known as, um, called Geoffrey Hinton. He’s someone in the field of artificial intelligence who is known as the godfather of AI. And there were similar resonating themes from what I was learning about him and his life and what we’re experiencing now. Things such well, mainly perseverance and dedication and believing in what we’re doing. And this will become more clear when I’m able to record and release that podcast. But it does, um, help to know that at all times people have had to deal with difficulties and we are defined not by our successes, but how we deal with the difficulties and the fortitude we’re able to find within ourselves when things aren’t going well. And I would say even more so, I’ve been thinking day after day of a scene in the Hamilton musical called Valley Forge and there’s a song where Alexander Hamilton is getting so frustrated trying to help the army and the revolution and George Washington and not receiving any aid from the Continental Congress or other merchants and George Washington tries to counsel Hamilton to be calm but the song ends on a very somber note, which I think is very applicable and plays over in my head on these days when I’m signing so many death certificates and the song lyrics say that we’re gonna fly a lot of flags half-mast, and that’s what we, in this country, are doing now. It’s a battle. It’s a fight against an invisible, um, enemy. But what I’ve seen of the people dedicated to doing what they have been trained to do and what they’ve dedicated their lives to do. I, I see it that we will pull through to the other side of this. And I know we will learn from this and be more vigilant and more ready the next time, so that so many people do not die.From short and sweet AI. I’m Dr Peper sending you all my best thoughts, be well and stay safe.

5 MINAPR 22
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A Physician during COVID

How to Train Your Emotion AI

How do you train neural networks to understand and simulate human emotions? From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m discussing how to train your AI. We use 10,000 possible combinations of muscle movements in the face to create one facial expression. Add to this more than 400 possible voice inflections, along with thousands of hand and body gestures. All these combinations change continuously throughout a human conversation. Our brains process these complex, sometimes intense emotions, subconsciously, in microseconds, over and over again throughout the day. Emotion and Datasets The way AI can help us is to have machines that can effectively communicate with us and understand what we want. They need to recognize our emotional state, how we’re feeling, through our voice, facial expressions and nonverbal cues. In order to teach computers how to understand emotions, AI researchers use machine learning and neural networks. Machines are very good at analyzing large amounts of data. We’re talking a dataset that has almost 8 million facial expressions. When a machine trains on that many variations, it learns to detect patterns in facial movements and even the nuances between a smirk and a smile. The machines can listen to voice tone and recognize sounds that indicate stress or anger. How does it do this? Emotion Metrics Using computer vision, the algorithms identify key landmarks on the face such as the tip of the nose, the corners of the mouth or the corners of the eyebrows. Deep learning algorithms then analyze the pixels of the images to classify the expressions. Combinations of these facial expressions are then mapped to emotions. Another program for analyzing speech evaluates not what is said, but how it is said, calculating changes in tone, loudness, tempo and voice quality to understand what’s happening and the emotion and gender of the speaker. These are called emotion metrics. And when tested against human emotions, the key emotion metrics have accuracies above 90%. Many companies are working on emotion AI. Amazon has a network for speech based emotion detection. Another company, Affectiva, has a neural network called SoundNet, that can classify anger from audio data in 1.2 seconds, regardless of the speaker’s language. That’s as fast as a human can detect anger from a voice. Another company, Cogito, has a system which analyzes voices, of military veterans with PTSD, to determine if they need help. FATE Flaws But there are worries about this technology. Many people in the field raise concerns that these types of systems have FATE flaws. FATE flaws in AI stand for fairness, accountability, transparency and ethical flaws. For example, a study with one facial recognition algorithm, showed faces of black people are rated as angrier, than faces of white people, even when the faces of black people were smiling. Lisa Barret, a professor of psychology, spent 2 years along with 4 other scientists scrutinizing the evidence, for the accuracy of emotion AI. They concluded that companies using AI cannot reliably fingerprint, emotions through expressions. However, she does think in the future, emotions can be measured more accurately, when more sophisticated metrics are available. As she explained: “it’s intuitive that emotions are very complex. Sometimes people cry in anger, sometimes they shout, some people laugh when angry and sometimes, they just sit silently and plan the demise of their enemy”. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper. As always you can find further reading, videos and podcasts in the show notes.

4 MINMAR 24
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How to Train Your Emotion AI

What is Emotion AI?

Humans are incredibly skilled at identifying the emotions in a conversation. We can “hear” a smile. And we correctly identify emotions in a voice even when we don’t speak the language. In fact more than 50 categories exist within the human emotions of surprise, joy, anger, sadness and fear. And each is conveyed through body language, words or tone. When you recognize these signals and respond appropriately, you have high emotional intelligence or high EQ. AI has high IQ but low EQ We know emotional intelligence and social skills correlate with a person’s potential for success in life. On the other hand, we live in a high IQ world surrounded with super advanced technology and AI systems developed to help us. But they have absolutely no EQ, no emotional intelligence. We need to build emotionally intelligent machines that truly understand human needs so we can have successful interactions with them. Give machines emotions The idea of making emotionally intelligent AI has been around for a long time. In 1997 an MIT Media lab professor, Rosalind Picard, published a book about computers and emotions entitled “Affective Computing”. Affect is a psychology term and refers to feeling, emotion, or mood. Picard is credited with starting the field of computer science known as affective computing. It’s also called emotional artificial intelligence or emotion AI. Her book outlined how to give machines the skills of emotional intelligence so they can be genuinely intelligent and interact with us naturally. She believes computers should have the ability to recognize, understand, to even have and express, emotions. And by the way, this sounds very similar to what Ray Kurzweil has predicted in some of his conversations about the future. The need for emotion datasets In 2009 Picard and Rana el Kaliouby, a computer scientist from MIT, started an AI company called Affectiva based on emotion recognition technology. Subsequently, the company created a dataset of 7.9 million faces from 87 countries with recorded expressions for just about every human emotion. Above all, Picard and Kaliouby wanted to avoid biases in Affectiva’s algorithms. They therefore used a diversity of faces to pick up the differences in expressions from all ethnic groups, ages, genders and cultural backgrounds. Incidentally, I talked about the bias in large datasets in a previous flash talk on ImageNet. Today Affectiva’s algorithms can detect human emotion from facial expressions and vocal cues. But even more, Kaliouby wants to train machines to recognize the subtle nuances in human emotions. Humans use a lot of nonverbal cues. Gestures, body language, voice tone all contribute to how emotions are communicated. For that reason researchers plan to develop emotion AI that is multimodal and can detect emotion the way humans do from multiple channels. Ultimately, Kaliouby wants to fuse digital technology with an ability to understand the humans using it. The application of emotion AI The power to detect human emotion has implications for every aspect of society. Emotion AI technology can detect mental and physical ailments based on how patients look or sound. In marketing it determines consumer’s reactions to commercials and TV shows. In the automotive world, emotion AI can identify distractions going on inside the car that could affect safety, such as arguments or a driver’s lack of focus. Finally, the biggest role so far has been in customer service. Call centers are already using emotion AI to identify the mood of customers on the phone.

5 MINMAR 18
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What is Emotion AI?

AI Audiobooks

DeepZen has released for purchase the first AI narrated audiobook. From and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper and today I’m talking about AI audiobooks. In a previous flash talk, I discussed how we’re entering a voice first future. With smart assistants leading the way, we will request and consume information by speaking rather than type or read from a screen. We will type less on our laptops and smart phones and communicate more with voice. And as a result, people will consume more audiobooks. Text to Speech There are about one million books published each year in the US. Despite this only 40,000 books are recorded due to the costs. Audiobooks are time consuming and can cost up to $5000 per book to record. Not surprisingly then, companies have focused on perfecting AI to change text into speech through deep learning based systems. And there’s a whole history of machine learning breakthroughs over the last few years which has led to progressive improvement in the natural language processi...

3 MINMAR 10
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AI Audiobooks

AI and Coronavirus

Is there an upside to the coronavirus? Nope. But the outbreak did show how AI can be used to predict and accurately track a pandemic. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper, and today I’m talking about what everyone is talking about, the coronavirus or COVID 19. There are so many ways AI impacts the cornavirus outbreak. Chinese drones are disinfecting public areas and track people who don’t adhere to quarantine. Robots decontaminate hospital rooms. Self-driving cars in China deliver supplies to medical workers. Facial recognition cameras search for people not wearing their mandated face mask. Infrared temperature scanners detect fevers in large groups of people. Doctors use AI software to find evidence of coronavirus in lung scans from patients who are ill. Think about what happened with the SARS virus in 2003 and compare that to the coronavirus today. What you realize is over the last two decades AI has really advanced how we respond to pandemics. Early Prediction with AI Early ...

5 MINMAR 3
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AI and Coronavirus

What is Edge AI or Edge Computing?

Data and AI are moving out of the cloud onto the edge of the network. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper. And today I’m talking about edge AI. The Cloud First there were mainframe computers which stored lots of data. Then data was stored on hard drives on desktop computers. Then laptop computers revolutionized our experience and we could access the internet to get unlimited data that’s stored in the cloud. And as you know, the cloud is a term referring to the massive number of computer servers which collect and store data from the internet. These servers are located in data centers all over the world. Now with mobile devices, we have access to data anytime, anywhere via the cloud. Cloud Problems But connecting to the cloud comes with problems such as the lag time between the cloud and the smart device, the cost of storing data in the cloud, and more pressing issues of privacy. We realize smart assistants are sending snippets of our audio back to the cloud for training purpose...

4 MINFEB 29
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What is Edge AI or Edge Computing?

5G: Fifth Generation Wireless. What is it?

A consumer study found 58% of Americans don’t understand what 5G is. From Short and Sweet AI, I’m Dr. Peper, with an explanation of 5G. What Is 5G? 5G stands for fifth generation cellular wireless. And it’s important to know it’s not just another “G” of 4G technology. It won’t work the same as 4G. 2020 is the year super fast 5G is expectd to have a slow roll out. That means the first 5G networks will be faster than 4G. But 5G won’t achieve it’s fastest speeds until companies complete the infrastructure. To get these benefits, users will have to buy new phones and the wireless providers will need to install new networking equipment. How Fast Is 5G? How much faster is 5G? Downloading a typical movie to your phone would take 17 secoonds with 5G compared to six minutes for 4G. 5G wireless will have connection speeds 10 – 20 times faster than the speediest home internet service. And it will be 600 times faster than typical 4G speeds on your phone today. 5G cellular technology uses something called millimeter-wave networks or mmWave. With mmWave, data can be streamed to phones at extremely fast rates but only over short distances. So a huge number of access points or small cell sites will be needed to transfer the signals instead of a few huge cell towers. But is it only speed that matters? There’s another speed, called latency speed, that’s perhaps even more important. The time between you asking Siri a question, searching the web, and getting a response will be faster. This is because of the lag time or latency speed with 5G is faster due to newer networking technology and more reliable signals. Autonomous Vehicles But does all this really make 5G revolutionary and justify the hype. Quite honestly, yes. Because it’s what this technology can now accomplish that’s so exciting. And this comes back to Iot, the internet of things which I discussed last time. The shorter latencies of 5G allow things connected to the internet to communicate directly to each other. MmWave technology allows thousands of things to be directly connected together at once. This technology will truly kickstart fully autonomous vehicles. Remember autonomous vehicles which I talked about in a previous episode have no driver in the car unlike self driving vehicles with a steering wheel and a driver supervising. With 5G, cars are synchronized to traffic lights and each other. Future traffic has been described as being an elaborate street level ballet where cars flow like schools of fish in unison without colliding. There is even a new anticipated infrastructure called CV2X which stands for “cellular vehicle to everything”. Virtual Reality Because of 5G, IoT and something called edge computing, virtual reality becomes the new reality. With these 3 technologies, the perfect VR that exists today only in controlled scientific labs can now exist anywhere. These are perfect conditions for creating realistic representations of you with your specific tics and mannerisms. VR environments can be digitized and shared between users miles apart in real time. We will replace FaceTime with HologramTime. As we chat and interact with someone in their virtual world, they see us as holograms right next to them in their real world. We are one step closer to Ready Player One. I’ve talked about IoT and 5G but the trifecta includes another technology called edge AI.

4 MINFEB 25
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5G: Fifth Generation Wireless. What is it?

What is IoT and Why Does It Matter?

IoT, 5G and Edge Computing: these 3 different terms are everywhere and it’s time to talk about them. Today let’s discuss the Internet of things or IoT and see why it matters. IoT After all my research, the best definition I’ve found for the internet of things is by Calum McClelland, and, by the way, he has a lot of c’s and l’s in his name. Calum’s definiton of the internet of things is pretty simple. He says it means taking all the things in the world and connecting them to the internet. Voilà! But what does that mean, all the things in the world? Well let’s look at the most popular by far IoT: smartphones. As Calum explains, with a smartphone you can listen to any song in the world. But not every song in the world is stored on your smartphone. In fact every song in the world is stored somewhere else. But your phone can ask for that song by being connected to the internet and then stream it to your device. Contrary to popular belief, your phone is not a super computer with u...

4 MINFEB 19
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What is IoT and Why Does It Matter?
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