史迪威与蒋介石|抗战中的国民党与美国关系|民国历史

史迪威与蒋介石|抗战中的国民党与美国关系|民国历史

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himalaya
14 h 44 min
himalaya
80 Episodes

在中国近代史历史上,特别是在抗战历史上,史迪威是一个重要的人物。

1941年底,中国战区最高统帅部成立,以蒋介石任最高统帅。蒋介石就任后,立即通过驻美代表宋子文请罗斯福选派其亲信高级将领来华担任参谋长。

1942年1月29日,根据蒋介石的请求,罗斯福派遣了对华经验丰富的史迪威担任中国战区统帅参谋长。

2月11日,史迪威以中国战区统帅部参谋长职位与各项代表的名义身份,从美国启程赶赴中国,3月4日正式抵达重庆,始了他在异国生活的两年生涯。

3月8日,蒋介石正式任命史迪威为中国战区参谋长,并且受命其指挥入缅作战的中国军队。史迪威率兵入缅作战之后,由于其决策上的错误而导致了失败,而这对失去西南国际通道的中国政府来说无疑不是雪上加霜,而这也直接地开始加深了史、蒋二人之间的矛盾。

双方彼时对于战略战术上的争论已开始逐渐的上升到了个人层面,蒋介石不止一次表示了对史迪威来华工作的不满,更是直接性的指出美国政府之所以援华物资不多不及时,完全是因为史迪威本人没能够及时的向美国政府和军方报告建议而造成的。

反观史迪威,他从来都认为入缅作战能够失败,最大的原因便是因为国民将领大都是缺乏能力或者缺乏胆量,还有就是军队的指挥权问题是关键的失败原因之一。

除此之外,此次的中国之行,史迪威更是看到了国民将领高层内部的贪污腐败,前线吃紧后方亦同样吃紧,蒋介石对于国军乱象的包庇纵容,从来都让史迪威痛恨。

在史迪威的眼里看来,蒋介石从来都是一个顽固无知、满脑子偏见和自负的暴君。

1942年7月,介石借美国总统私人代表劳克林·柯里来华之机,第一次要求撤换史迪威,未果。

1943年10月,蒋介石第二次提出撤换史迪威,未果。

史迪威认为国民党玩忽职守、腐败混乱不堪,而我党则是减税、减租、减息,提高生产和生活水平,参加管理信守承诺,而且还帮助百姓,为此史迪威便提出了装备我党队伍和解除对我党的封锁各种要求。

而为了了解我党的部队,他还特意冲破层层的阻力,向延安派遣一个考察团来观察我党,从而开启美国政府与我党合作的先河。1944年7、8月间,美军观察组分两批抵达延安。

1944年7月,罗斯福建议蒋介石授予史迪威指挥中国战区所有军队的全权;蒋介石复电表示“原则同意”。1944年8月,晋升四星上将。1944年9月,蒋介石第三次要求美国总统召回史迪威。

1944年10月,罗斯福同意召回史迪威;10月19日,在接到罗斯福的召回通知后,10月21日他便黯然的离开了中国。

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